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Most patterns found in the analysis of human living populations are likely to be consequences of demographic expansions, determined by technological developments affecting food availability, transportation, or military power.During such expansions, both genes and languages are spread to potentially vast areas.Understanding the forces that shaped Neotropical diversity is central issue to explain tropical biodiversity and inform conservation action; yet few studies have examined large, widespread species.

Climatic events at the end of the Pleistocene, parapatric speciation, divergence along the Andean foothill, and role of the Amazon river, have similarly shaped the history of other taxa.BRCA1 plays critical roles in DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and maintenance of genomic stability.BRCA1 forms several distinct complexes through association with different adaptor proteins, and each complex forms in a mutually exclusive manner (19261749, images] [Full Text]" pmid="19261749"Miki et al.In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.Mitochondrial Eve lived later than Homo heidelbergensis and the emergence of Homo neanderthalensis, but earlier than the out of Africa migration, Because mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) is almost exclusively passed from mother to offspring without recombination (see the exception at paternal mt DNA transmission), most mt DNA in every living person differs only by the mutations that have occurred over generations in the germ cell mt DNA since the conception of the original "Mitochondrial Eve".A method of absolute genetic dating recently introduced uses mutation rates as molecular clocks; it was applied to human evolution using microsatellites, which have a sufficiently high mutation rate.Results are comparable with those of other methods and agree with a recent expansion of modern humans from Africa.Bayesian analysis favored mountain tapir () paraphyly in relation to lowland tapir over reciprocal monophyly, corroborating the inferences from the fossil data these species are sister taxa.A coalescent-based analysis rejected a null hypothesis of allopatric divergence, suggesting a complex history.The authors stated that as a regulated secretory protein, BRCA1 appears to function by a mechanism not previously described for tumor suppressor products.As reviewed by 8589705] [Full Text]" pmid="8589705"Steeg (1996), granins are a family of acidic proteins that bind calcium and aggregate in its presence.